Chess Basic Strategy: Blueprint for Beginners

Chess Basic Strategy: Blueprint For Beginners
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Chess, a centuries-old game, isn’t merely about moving pieces around a chess board. It’s an intricate dance, a test of strategy and foresight that has captivated minds for generations. It’s the art of chess strategy that draws many to this great game.

Understanding the game of chess, especially for beginner chess players, starts with grasping the basic rules. Imagine being a general in a battlefield. Your army, composed of unique units each with its own abilities, awaits your command. They rely on your understanding of the game, your foresight, and strategic mastery, all of which start with knowing your troops, the terrain (the chess board), and the goal—cornering the opponent’s king.

Just like any other skill, chess takes time to learn and even more to master. But as the saying goes, “Every master was once a beginner.” To become a good chess player, you need to understand the chess rules and the strategies that come into play right from the start of the game.

This article aims to guide beginners through the complex world of chess, providing chess tips, explaining the basic principles, and shedding light on some of the most popular openings. We will delve into the importance of the center of the board, illustrate how to navigate the initial moves, and how to position your own pieces effectively.

Table of Contents

    Understanding the Chess Board and Pieces

    Welcome to the battlefield of intellect, also known as the chess board. Comprised of 64 squares in an 8×8 grid, half of them white squares and half black, this battlefield is where you’ll direct your troops, make strategic plans, and execute tactical ideas.

    At the start of the game, you’ll find 16 chess pieces on your side: the King, Queen, two Rooks, two Knights, two Bishops, and eight Pawns, each with their own unique attributes and legal moves. Mastering the game of chess begins by understanding each piece’s role and how they traverse the board. Let us start with each piece movements.

    How does the KING move?

    Let’s begin with the King, arguably the most important piece. Your entire game revolves around the safety of your King. Be it a white king or a black king, it can move to any adjacent square in a straight line or diagonally, which gives it access to a maximum of eight squares. But remember, the King’s safety is paramount. Every move you make should ensure that your King is not left in a vulnerable position.

    How does the QUEEN move?

    Next, we have the Queen, the most powerful piece in your arsenal. The Queen combines the abilities of the Rook and the Bishop. It can move any number of squares along a rank, file, or diagonal. Whether it’s a white queen or a black queen, her flexibility makes her a strong ally, but also a piece your opponent will be eager to threaten.

    How does the BISHOPS move?

    Your Bishops and Rooks are also crucial players. Bishops move diagonally across any number of squares. They start the game on their own color square and will stay on that color for the entirety of the game.

    How does the KNIGHTS move?

    Knights, symbolized by the horse, have a unique movement. Unlike other pieces, Knights can jump over other pieces, making their movements slightly trickier to anticipate. A Knight moves in an L-shape: two squares in a straight line, then one square perpendicular to that. This flexibility often allows Knights to control a good number of squares in the center of the board.

    How does the ROOKS move?

    Rooks, on the other hand, move in a straight line horizontally or vertically. Together, they control crucial long open diagonals and files, forming a protective layer around your King and a threat to your opponent’s position.

    How does the PAWNS move?

    Lastly, we have Pawns, your loyal foot soldiers. At first glance, they may seem less significant, but a pawn move can often dictate the flow of a chess game. They move one square straight forward (not backward), but capture diagonally. They might be small, but they’re pivotal in maintaining central control and evolving into a stronger piece if they reach the opponent’s side of the board.

    The Chess Board and Initial Setup

    Understanding the Chessboard

    The chessboard is the battlefield where the game of chess takes place. It’s a square board divided into 64 smaller squares of alternating colors, typically black and white, arranged in an 8×8 grid.

    Each square on the board is uniquely identified by a combination of a letter and a number, from ‘a1’ at the bottom left to ‘h8’ at the top right (from the perspective of the white player). The letters ‘a’ to ‘h’ identify the columns, or files, while the numbers 1 to 8 identify the rows, or ranks. For instance, the square in the bottom right corner is ‘h1’ for white and ‘h8’ for black.

    The chessboard is always set up so that each player has a white square in the right-hand corner. This is a good way to ensure your board is set up correctly.

    On this board, your army of 16 pieces is assembled: one King, one Queen, two Rooks, two Knights, two Bishops, and eight Pawns.

    How to set up the CHESS BOARD?

    Here’s how you should position them at the start of the game:

    1. Rooks: Place the Rooks in the corners of the board, on a1 and h1 for white, and a8 and h8 for black.

    2. Knights: The Knights are placed beside the Rooks, on b1 and g1 for white, and b8 and g8 for black.

    3. Bishops: Next to the Knights, on c1 and f1 for white, and c8 and f8 for black, you’ll find the Bishops.

    4. Queen and King: The remaining squares d1 and e1 for white (d8 and e8 for black) are for the Queen and the King. But, how to remember which goes where? The Queen always goes on her own color. So, the white Queen goes on d1 (a white square), and the black Queen goes on d8 (a black square). Place the King on the remaining square.

    5. Pawns: Your Pawns form the second row, on the ranks 2 for white and 7 for black.

    Remember, understanding the initial setup is a critical first step to mastering the game of chess.

    What is the Significance of the Center?

    The squares in the center of the board – e4, d4, e5, and d5 – are extremely important in the game of chess. Control of these central squares allows a player’s pieces to access the whole board while limiting the opponent’s ability to do the same. That’s why many basic chess strategies involve controlling the center early in the game.

    What is the “Flanks”?

    The term “flank” in chess usually refers to the sides of the board – specifically, the ‘a’, ‘b’, ‘g’, and ‘h‘ files. Moves on these files are often used to launch attacks on the opponent’s position, especially in the opening and middlegame.

    What are Key Squares?

    In certain endgames, some squares become strategically important, often referred to as “key squares”. For instance, in king and pawn endgames, advancing your king to a key square can often guarantee a win.

    Understanding the chessboard – its layout, the importance of central control, the role of flanks, and the concept of key squares – is a vital first step in developing a good chess strategy.

    What is Chess Notation?

    Chess notation is a method used to record and read moves in a game of chess. It helps us study games, discuss strategies, and share exciting games with others. There are two primary forms of chess notation: algebraic and descriptive. For our purposes, we will focus on algebraic notation, as it is the most common and widely accepted form used today.

    In algebraic notation, each square on the chess board is uniquely identified by a letter and a number. The board is divided into files (vertical columns) labeled from A to H, starting from the file on the white player’s left. The ranks (horizontal rows) are numbered from 1 to 8, starting from the white player’s side of the board. So, every square can be denoted by a combination of a letter (a-h) and a number (1-8).

    How do you record the chess moves?

    A  pawan, rook, bishop, queen, and king chess pieces in neon green background.

    In algebraic notation, each piece is represented by a letter. The King is ‘K’, Queen is ‘Q’, Rook is ‘R’, Bishop is ‘B’, and Knight is ‘N’ (to avoid confusion with King). Pawns are not assigned a letter and are recognized by the absence of a letter.

    Here are some examples.

    The movement of a piece is recorded by the piece’s letter followed by the destination square. For instance, if a Knight moves to the square ‘f3‘, the move is recorded as ‘Nf3‘.

    Pawn moves are recorded by just noting the destination square. For example, a pawn move to e3 is simply ‘e3’.

    If a piece is captured, an ‘x‘ is inserted between the piece and the destination square. For example, if a Bishop captures a piece on ‘c4’, it is noted as ‘Bxc4’.

    How do you note Castling?

    When a King and a Rook are moved simultaneously (castling), it’s noted as ‘O-O’ for kingside and ‘O-O-O’ for queenside.

    Pawns reaches the other side of the board

    If a pawn reaches the other side of the board, it can be promoted to any piece (usually a Queen). This is noted with the destination square, an equals sign, and the new piece. For example, ‘e8=Q’ indicates that a pawn moved to e8 and was promoted to a Queen.

    Pawn Promoted To Queen, e8

    Now that you understand the basics of chess notation, you can record your games, replay the games of others, and further your chess lessons. Knowing how to read and record chess moves will greatly assist you in learning and understanding different strategies and tactics in chess.

    Initial Strategies: The Importance of the Opening

    d5, e5, d4, and e4, the chess boards center

    Control the Center

    The game of chess is a battle for control over the 64 squares on the chess board, but the most important ones are the four in the center: d4, e4, d5, e5. By placing your pawns or pieces on these squares, you gain more space and have more options for future moves. Think of the center as a crossroads in the middle of a town. If you control the crossroads, you can easily reach every part of the town.

    Develop Your Pieces

    Imagine each piece as a member of your team. You want all team members to be active and involved in the game. So, a key part of the opening strategy is to develop your pieces (Knights and Bishops) quickly to good squares where they have plenty of room to move and aren’t blocked by your own pawns. Moving your pieces towards the center of the board is usually a good move.

    King Safety

    The King is the most important piece on the board. If your King is checkmated, the game is over. Hence, it’s crucial to ensure your King’s safety. One good chess strategy for beginners is to castle early, preferably on the kingside (the side where your King starts). When you castle, you move your King towards the corner and bring your Rook towards the center, improving the safety of your King and the activity of your Rook.

    Don’t Move the Same Piece Twice: In the opening, it’s usually a good idea to avoid moving the same piece twice. Each move is precious, and you want to use your turns to get as many pieces developed as possible.

    Learn Some Key Openings

    Finally, a great way to improve your opening play is to learn some key openings and understand the ideas behind them. For example, the ‘Ruy Lopez’ opening focuses on quickly developing your pieces and controlling the center, while the ‘Sicilian Defense’ is about letting your opponent occupy the center with pawns, then undermining it.

    Remember, the opening sets the stage for the rest of the game. A good opening can give you a strong position and set you up for a successful middlegame. As a beginner, focus on understanding these principles first. As you get more comfortable, you can start learning more specific opening lines.

    In the next section, we’ll delve deeper into chess strategies for the middle game.

    Strategies for the Middlegame

    Having mastered the basic principles of the opening, let’s now delve into the heart of a chess game: the middle game. The middlegame is where the majority of the play occurs, and it’s characterized by complex battles, tactical combinations, and strategic maneuvering of the chess pieces. Here are a few key strategies for navigating the middle game.

    1. Piece Activity

    You’ve brought your pieces out in the opening; now it’s time to put them to work. Always aim for active pieces. That means placing your pieces where they control many squares and can be maneuvered easily. A knight on the edge of the board, for example, controls fewer squares and is often referred to as a “bad piece.”

    2. Tactical Ideas

    Tactics are short-term plans or tricks you use to gain an advantage. They usually involve threats, attacks, or captures. Some common tactical themes include forks (double attack), pins, and skewers. For example, a knight fork could attack the opponent’s king and queen simultaneously, potentially winning material.

    3. Control of Open Files and Diagonals

    Rooks love open files (vertical lines with no pawns), while bishops love open diagonals. Controlling these can give you more room to move and can create attacking opportunities.

    4. Pawn Structure

    Pawns might seem insignificant, but they form the ‘skeleton’ of your position. A good pawn structure can provide your pieces with protection and control of important squares. Conversely, a weak pawn structure (with isolated, doubled, or backward pawns) can give your opponent targets to attack.

    5. King Safety

    Just as in the opening, king safety remains paramount in the middle game. Always keep an eye on your opponent’s threats against your king. If your king’s position becomes too exposed or weak, even a small attack can become deadly.

    6. Plan Your Play

    Chess is a strategic game. Good players always have a plan. Your plan can be as simple as ‘I want to place my rook on an open file,’ or as complex as ‘I want to provoke my opponent into weakening their pawn structure, then launch an attack on their king.’ Remember, a bad plan is often better than no plan at all!

    7. Understand Your Opponent’s Ideas

    Chess is not a solo game. Always consider what your opponent is planning and try to counter it. If you see a threat, address it!

    As you become more familiar with these concepts, solving chess puzzles can help reinforce your understanding of the game. They’re a great way to practice recognizing patterns and tactical combinations. You might also consider studying annotated games from strong players, as this can provide insights into the art of chess strategy.

    In the following section, we’ll explore the endgame, where precision is key and every move counts.

    Basic Concept of Checkmate

    What is Checkmate?

    Checkmate is the ultimate goal in a game of chess. It happens when you attack (or ‘check’) your opponent’s king in such a way that the king has no legal moves to escape the attack on the next turn. Let’s consider the most straightforward scenario: checkmating with a queen and king against a lone king.

    King and Queen versus King

    In this situation, your goal is to use your queen and king in concert to drive your opponent’s king to the edge of the board, and then deliver checkmate.

    Here’s a step-by-step guide to achieving this:

    1. Use Your Queen to Control the King: The queen should be used to control the movement of the enemy king. As a beginner tip, try to keep your queen a knight’s move away from the opponent’s king. This maintains the pressure on the enemy king while keeping your queen safe from any direct attacks.
    2. Bring Your King into Play: As you control the enemy king’s movements with your queen, start bringing your king closer. Your king will provide necessary support as you aim to limit the enemy king’s escape squares.
    3. Force the Enemy King to the Edge: By skillfully maneuvering your queen and king, you can force the enemy king towards the edge of the board. The king will have fewer legal moves as it gets closer to the edge.
    4. Deliver Checkmate: Once the enemy king is on the edge of the board, it’s time to deliver checkmate. There are many ways to do this, but one of the simplest is to use your queen to control all the escape squares of the enemy king and then move your own king to deliver checkmate.
    Check Mate

    For example, (whites turn to move) if the black king is on a8, your white king is on b6 and your queen is on d7, you move your queen to either b7 or c8 to check. The black king has no legal moves, so it’s checkmate.

    Remember, it’s essential to use both your king and queen in this process. The queen is a powerful piece that can control a lot of squares, but without the support of the king, you can’t deliver checkmate.

    Becoming comfortable with this basic checkmate can greatly improve your endgame skills. From there, you can learn more complex checkmates, like checkmating with a rook and king, or even two bishops and a king. As always, practicing with chess puzzles or against a computer can help reinforce these skills.

    Strategies for the Endgame

    The endgame is the final phase of a chess game, typically characterized by fewer pieces on the board. It is where kings come out of their safe places to join the battle, and where every single move can have a profound impact on the outcome of the game. Understanding some basic endgame strategies can help turn a tight game in your favor.

    1. Activate Your King

    Unlike the opening and middlegame, where king safety is paramount, the endgame is the time for your king to take a more active role. In the endgame, the king becomes a powerful piece that can defend and attack, much like a more versatile knight. It can move in any direction and can help support your pawns as they aim to promote to a queen (the most valuable piece in terms of power on the board).

    2. Understand Pawn Majorities:

    In the endgame, pawns become key players. A player with a ‘pawn majority’ (more pawns on one side of the board) has a potential advantage. This majority can be used to create a ‘passed pawn’ — a pawn with no enemy pawns in front or beside it on an adjacent file, which can potentially become a new queen.

    3. Master Basic Checkmates

    Knowing how to checkmate your opponent with just a few pieces is crucial. Beginners should learn some basic checkmates, such as king and queen vs king, and king and rook vs king.

    4. Promote Your Pawns

    A pawn that reaches the other side of the board can be promoted to any piece. Most often, players choose to promote to a queen, as it’s the most powerful piece. A common objective in the endgame is to promote a pawn and use the newly minted piece to checkmate the opponent’s king.

    5. Practice Pawn Endgames

    Pawn endgames, also known as king and pawn endgames, are the most common type of endgame and also one of the most complex. It’s a good idea for beginners to study and practice these endgames to understand the power of the king and the potential of pawns.

    Remember, while studying endgame theory can seem less exciting than studying tactics or openings, it’s just as crucial, if not more. Many games, even at the highest level, are won in the endgame.

    As a beginner, once you’ve understood these concepts, the next step on your chess journey could be to play as much as possible! Consider joining a local chess club or playing online. Analyze your games afterward to learn from your mistakes. Read good books about chess and maybe even consider getting a coach if you’re serious about improving. And, of course, remember to have fun! After all, chess is a great game with centuries of history.

    Basic Concept of Stalemate

    What is Stalemate?

    In chess, a stalemate is a type of draw or tie that occurs when one player, on their turn, is not in check but has no legal moves. In other words, the player cannot move any of their pieces without placing their own king in check, which is not allowed in chess.

    This often happens in the endgame when one player, typically the one with a significant disadvantage, has very few pieces left.

    Here’s an example:


    Suppose it’s black’s turn to move, and black only has the king left on h8. White has a king on h6 and a queen on g6. Now, black’s king is not in check, but no matter where black would move the king, it would move into check. This situation is a STALEMATE.

    It’s important to be aware of the potential for stalemate, especially when you have a significant advantage. A single careless move can turn a winning game into a draw. When you’re ahead, take care not to accidentally stalemate your opponent when you’re trying to checkmate them.

    On the flip side, if you’re the player at a disadvantage, you might be able to save the game by trying to force a stalemate. It’s a clever defensive strategy to keep in mind.

    With this understanding of the basic concept of stalemate, you’ve added another important tool to your beginner’s toolbox of chess strategies.

    Useful Resources for New Chess Players

    There’s a wealth of resources available for beginner chess players who are eager to improve their game. Here are some you might find useful:

    1. Chess Books: Several excellent books can guide beginners in understanding the nuances of the game. “Bobby Fischer Teaches Chess” is a classic that focuses on pattern recognition and fundamental tactics. “The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Chess” by Patrick Wolff, a two-time U.S. Chess Champion, is another excellent guide for beginners.

    Bobby Fischer Teaches Chess book

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    the complete idiot's guide to chess book.

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    2. Online Chess Platforms: Websites like and Lichess offer a platform to play chess games against players worldwide. They also offer tutorials, practice puzzles, and insights into your games.

    3. Chess Tactics Servers: Websites like Chess Tempo allow you to practice chess puzzles, also known as tactics. These puzzles often involve a sequence of moves leading to a tangible benefit, like winning a piece or delivering checkmate.

    4. YouTube Channels and Streaming: There are numerous chess channels where you can watch educational content, game analyses, and live streams. For example, the YouTube channels of Hanging Pawns and Chessnetwork offer beginner-friendly content.

    5. Chess Software: Programs like Chess master and Fritz can be beneficial resources. These programs allow you to play against AI and analyze your games to find mistakes and learn from them.

    6. Local Chess Clubs and Tournaments: Joining a local chess club can provide a supportive community and opportunities to play over-the-board games, which have a different feel from online games. Participating in tournaments can also help new players gain experience.

    7. Online Chess Courses: Websites like Udemy and Coursera offer online courses that can take you from a beginner level to a more advanced level. They often cover topics like openings, tactics, endgames, and strategy.

    Using these resources, new chess players can significantly improve their understanding of the game. The most important thing, however, is to enjoy the process. Chess is a game with infinite complexity and room for creativity. So play often, learn constantly, and don’t forget to have fun along the way.

    This concludes our beginner’s guide to chess strategies. We hope you found it informative and enjoyable. Remember, the journey of chess improvement is a marathon, not a sprint. So, take your time, enjoy each game, and celebrate your progress.


    As we conclude this beginner’s guide to chess strategies, let’s reflect on the key learning points we’ve covered.

    1. Basic Chess Rules and Movement: We’ve learned how each piece moves, the concept of check, checkmate, and stalemate. Understanding these basics is the foundation of your chess journey.

    2. Chessboard Layout and Piece Setup: We’ve explored the chessboard and how the pieces are set up at the start of the game. This familiarized you with the battlefield where your future chess games will unfold.

    3. The Importance of the Opening: We’ve discussed the importance of controlling the center in the opening, using strategies like the Italian Game, Sicilian Defense, and Ruy Lopez. Your initial moves can shape the trajectory of the game.

    4. Essential Chess Strategies: We touched on strategic concepts like developing your pieces, controlling the center, and ensuring the safety of your king. These principles will guide your decision-making process in the game.

    5. Checkmate and Stalemate Concepts: We learned about the ultimate goal of the game – checkmate, and how to avoid turning a win into a stalemate.

    6. Useful Resources for Improvement: We’ve provided several resources, like books, online platforms, and local clubs, which can be instrumental in enhancing your skills and understanding of the game.

    The game of chess is a fascinating journey of continuous learning and strategy. While this guide gives you a solid starting point, remember that the true art of chess strategy is deep and takes time to master. Enjoy each game, learn from your mistakes, and celebrate your progress.

    Above all, remember the words of the great Bobby Fischer: “Chess is life in miniature. Chess is struggle, chess is battles.” So, embrace the struggle, enjoy the battles, and be happy checkmating on your chess journey!

    This concludes our beginner’s guide to chess strategies. Keep practicing, keep learning, and most importantly, keep enjoying this centuries-old game. Your journey in the world of chess is just beginning. Happy playing!